Frequently Asked Questions
*Are mules a Species? (What is the genus/species name for a mule?)
     The answer is NO.   Mules are not a species, they are a hybrid between two other species - Equus assinus (the donkey) and Equus caballus (the horse).  A species is usually defined as a group of animals that can reproduce like examples, and the mule cannot reproduce. 
              Likewise, Tygons and Ligers (crosses between Tigers and Lions) are not in themselves Species.  They too are hybrids, exactly like Mules and Hinnies.
              If you must come up with an approximation of a  Latin name for the mule,
Equus mulis has been used. However, the correct scientific classification is Hybrid (Equus caballus x Equus assinus).

So what is the classification for the Miniature or Mammoth donkey?
(we have been getting an alarming number of calls about this.  Why someone is trying to say that Miniature Donkeys are an endangered species, we don't know, but here are the plain facts...)

ALL DONKEYS - Miniature, Mammoth, Standard, Poitou, Mexican Catalonian, BLM Burro - any donkey regardless of size or color - is Equus assinus.  Just DONKEYS.  ****Donkeys in the USA are not grouped by "Breed" but rather by TYPE. They do not have SPECIES and SUBSPECIES  (used for WILD ANIMALS)- they have types.  Until there ae distinct DNA markers recorded for the different types (ie, that is is possible to take a DNA sample from a donkey and prove that miniatures have different and identifiable DNA markers from Standards or Mammoths) they will continue to be classified by heights and types.

So a Miniature Donkey is Equus Assinus (subtype, miniature).  The name "Miniature Mediterranean" was coined by the ADMS and Miniature Donkey Registry.  The name was voted on in the 1990s by the membership and kept over the suggested "American Miniature Donkey".  Miniature Donkeys, Standard Donkeys, Mammoth donkeys ARE NOT endangered.  They are domestic animals.  They are not exotics.  

The American Rare Breeds Conservancy still lists Mammoths as "threatened" due to registration numbers.  However the numbers of actual animals are far greater than those registered.

Update May 2008 - Miniature Donkeys may now be recognized as a breed, that being animals who have a multi-generation pedigree (ie registered with pedigree) and who throw their unique breed traits to their offspring consistently.

So why do I see mini donkeys at "exotic sales"?

Exotic sales sell, in addition to true exotic animals (like big cats, zoo type animals, zebras, camels) those that are "unusual".  Miniature Donkeys are still considered to be "novelties" and "unusual" and are often seen at this type sale.  So are pygmy goats.  They certainly are not exotic. 

You do not have to have any kind of special license or paperwork to own or breed donkeys.  Any donkeys.  Yes, the Poitou donkey is endangered. But only by domestic breeders classification.  According to the USDA it's just a French donkey.  It's a domestic donkey that has a very small population.   It's not an endangered SPECIES, it's an endangered sub-type of the domestic donkey.  Miniature donkeys are not endangered or rare in any way.  There are over 59,000 registered donkeys in MDR alone (May 2010).  We know there are a lot more, probably as many as 65,000 living Miniature Donkeys right now.  Endangered means a total population of under 5000 or so.   And since they aren't a BREED but just a SUBTYPE, they are counted in the overall whole total of DONKEYS. 

Where does a zebra hybrid fall?
The USDA classifies any animal that is a half-bred offspring of a domestic and wild animal as DOMESTIC.  Therefore zorses (zebra x horse) zonies (zebra x pony) and Zebrass (also called zedonk or zonkey, zebra x donkey) are DOMESTIC animals.  You do not need a special permit to own them.  We do think, however, you should check with your city/state zoning codes.  Some have special clauses written in concering horses/mules/donkeys. 

Scientific Classification :  HYBRID, Equus zebra (+subspecies) x Equus caballos (or assinus). 

*Can Mules Reproduce? Or FERTILE MULES?   (Mules giving Birth/Mule gives Birth/Mule has a foal)    Do they have normal anatomy?
What is the offspring of a horse and a mule called? Can a mule have a baby?

Short answer - No, mules (both male and female) are sterile.  Both have normal anatomy internally and externally.  The males must be castrated, as they have the equipment but do not produce the essential element needed (we're trying to keep this PG here...)  Females may come into heat and may need hormone shots if heat is a problem. 

For those who are following up with "Okay, what about the fertile mule we have read about..."  - Fertile mules (hinnies) are a 1 in 1 million case occurance. All known fertile hybrids in the equine world have been female mules or hinnies.  Why these few is still scientifically a mystery, and there is still scientific debate over the verification of some "Fertile"; cases.  The most well known and documented cases are of Krause, a mare mule with two mule sons, and a fertile hinny in China, who;s offspring, Dragon Foal, is considered unique.  The complications for Krause's cases is that her sire, Chester, is also the sire of her sons.  However, DNA testing has been cataloged as conclusive that both foals, Blue Moon and White Lighting, are Krause's foals.
           In most known cases of mule fertility, it has been noted that the mare mule passed on a complete set of her Maternal genes to the foal.  Therefore a female mule bred to a horse would produce a 100% horse foal.  Thus was the case of Old Beck, who was at Texas A&M in the 1920's;.  This mare mule had a mule daughter, Kit.  She was brought to TX A&M for observation.  She was bred to a saddle horse stallion, and produced a horse son, Pat Murphy Jr.  Pat Jr was fertile, and sired horse foals.  Beck aborted a third foal, sired by a jack, which although deformed, appeared to be a regular mule.
                There has more recently been a case of a mare mule in Brazil who has foaled two 100% horse sons.  Tests in the future will hopefully prove them to be normal, fertile stallions.
              Dragon Foal, instead of being a donkey foal from the mating of a hinny to a jack, is a unique hybrid, with combinations never documented before.  Visually, she appears to be a strange donkey with some more mule-like features, and her chromosomes and DNA test seem to confirm this.

A mare mule in Morocco foaled in 2003 and was genetically confirmed to have been the dam of the male foal.  His DNA shows him to be a mixed karyotyped hybrid like Dragon Foal, approximately 3/4 donkey and 1/4 horse.

In the spring of 2007 a mare mule in Colorado gave birth to a live foal.  DNA from both the mare mule and her foal has been tested by two different labs to date (July 2007).  Both labs have thus verified that the foal qualifies as the offspring of the mare mule, and that she (the mother) is a mule and not a donkey or horse.  This is just one more case of mule fertility that will be under investigation.  Unlike other cases of fertile mare mules, this foal appears to be a mixture of horse and donkey phenotypes (ie, visually he looks more donkey-like than mule-like at this stage).  Study of the gene mapping will show later if he is a true mixture, as in the case of the Moroccan mare mule, or Dragon Foal in China.  Krause, the fertile mare mule in Nebraska in the 1980s, contributed a complete maternal gene set to her sons, making them pure mules (not a 3/4 donkey 1/4 horse mixture).

                  In the feline world, there are hybrids of Jungle cats and domestic cats, crossed by breeders to have a large cat with the wild markings and still be a pet.  The first-generation female hybrids (F-1) are fertile, but the males are not.  It is not until the F-3 generation (F-1 Crossed back to domestic cat is F-2, F-2 back to domestic cat again is F-#) that the males become fertile again.
  There have been no recorded cases of entire male mules (Male mules are always gelded  for use and show, no stallion mules are allowed) ever siring a foal.  The cases of fertile Mare mules are so low that the F-3 generation has not been documented or verified in order to test this theory.  There is one case (which has no scientific backing) of a mare mule whose Mule daughter was also fertile, and foaled a male "hule" (very horselike in appearance but with some mule characteristics) but no testing was ever done on the hule, and it is not known if he was routinely gelded or was left entire.

Basically, donkey x donkey is a donkey.  Donkey x horse is a mule.  Donkey x horse hybrids, called mules or hinnies, are sterile and cannot have babies.

Need more info on Fertile Mules?  ADMS has a packet available for $3.00 ppd. You may send a check, MO, or use paypal - just send an email or a note with payment to ADMS, 3401 Recreation Rd 3, Bonham TX 75418 or use paypal address - be sure to include your mailing address!

* How can you tell the difference between a Mule and Hinny?
                Really, there is no reliable way to do so.  The mule has a jack father and mare mother.  (Mules can be either male or female).  Hinnys (also either male or female) have a stallion father and jennet mother.  Hinnies are more rare than mules, but for all purposed are grouped together as MULES  (for example - horses, donkeys, mules, zebras, zebra hybrids).   Most known hinnies - where both parents are known- look just like mules.  Some so seem to have slightly more horse-like or donkey-like features, but so do some mules.  Not all hinnies are small - the size can be influenced by the parents.  However, Draft Hinnies are Extremely rare, while Miniature and Pony hinnies are more common.
              It is more difficult to breed for hinnies - the fertility rates drop when the chromosome number is lower in the female.  The male donkey has 62 chromosomes, the female horse 64, and this is a viable, easy cross.  In the reciprocal cross, the horse (64) to jennet (62) the female's count is lower and the conception rate, as well as the live birth ratio, drops drastically. 
              Old wives tales say the hinny lacks hybrid vigor, but no eveidence has been found to prove this.  However, modern hinnies are larger than the "Common"; hinny of times past - which would probably have been from a standard jennet (44-48") and a local stallion - not necessarily a good one either!!!
              One way that some breeders say is reliable to tell a hinny from a mule is to put them in with a mixed pasture - some donkeys and some mules.  The hinny will pair with the donkeys, the species that raised it, the mule with the horses.  But other than actually knowing the parents for certain, even this is just a "Best-guess" method.

                 You may have heard the term "Jerusalem donkeys" or "Sicilian"  used to indicate a gray-ish donkey with a cross and stripe over the shoulders and back.  However, neither of these terms are correct.  Sicilian is a bloodline of small donkeys that can trace parentage back to the original animals imported from Sicily.  MOST donkeys, regardless of color, and especially non-Mammoths, have a cross and stripe.  Even some Miniature donkeys that appear to be black actually have a faint cross and stripe. 
                        Mule breeders can tell you that foals from a black jack and sorrel mare are often bay with a cross and stripe (if you have an understanding of genetics you know that bay can result from black bred to sorrel where the mare possesses the Extension  gene ).  Since most horses do NOT have shoulder stripes, and only some have dorsals, it is logical that the cross comes from the jack, even if it is not visible. 

       There may be some donkeys who do not have a cross, but the genetic marker has not been located to see where it is; or is not and the breeding trial is highly complicated.  So for now, the best answer to "Do all Donkeys have a cross" is, NOT VISUALLY.

* Can I charge my membership or order books with a credit card?

YES!!!  We accept credit cards (MC/Visa) for membership, books, and other services.  You may even keep a card number on file with us for use in paying ads, membership, registration fees!  (You will still need to mail in any transfers or update Original Certificates to us).  We also accept paypal for services and books.  (To use paypal, go to - and use our email as the payee - please cut and paste if needed, as one wrong letter in an email will result in payment going to someone else!!! We also accept CCs on our new Online Membership and Registration forms!   You may call, write or
e-mail if you have questions.

Can I register my donkey or mule if I don't have any information on the parents on on a pedigree?

Yes, we maintain ADR as an open book registry.  Any donkey may be registered as long as it meets the basic confrmation requriements.  All mules may be registered, regardless of pedigree.  The date for closing of the MDR book is Jan 2009  (after which Miniature Mediterranean Donkeys (MMD's) must have registered Miniature parents to go into the MDR (Miniature Donkey Registry) book.  This will mean keeping of pedigrees, filing stud reports, and some form of Permanent ID for MDR donkeys.  ALL OTHER DONKEYS (including those that are Untraced in parentage) will be placed in the ADR book.  You may still register "Minis" that have only one registered parent, or those with untraced background as American Miniature Donkeys or *Irish/English Miniatures" (Australian, etc) but they will go in the ADR book instead of being registered as Miniature Mediterranean Donkeys.

If you do not have information on the animal's background, write unknown in the blank (or Untraced for the parent names, which is more correct).  Provide as MUCH information as you can.IF the parents are not registered, still fill in as much information as you can about them.  If you know the dam (mother) was Grannie, 34" gray-dun, please fill it in, do not leave it off the form because she was unregistered. 

If an exact birthdate is known, at least the name, color/size or basic information about the mother must be provided. We cannot use exact birthdates if no parent information is given at all. Please do not create a birthdate.  If the mother's name is not on the papers, just a year or month/year will be used .

*What is a group of donkeys called?

A herd.  Although you may have heard the answer "a pace of asses" on a popular "Win money" Game Show, no references ANYWHERE can be found to support this answer.  It is certainly not in any of our archival books!  We've found a number of websites that list this, and if you like, you can use it as an answer, but the official answer is this:  Any group of equines is a herd - whether horse, zebra, donkey, mule, wild ass, or mixed species.  A family group might be called a band if you are referring to a specific family - such as Midnight's band, and Blackie's band.  Some people would like it to be "a Congress of Asses"- send in your vote!!!

*What is the difference between a donkey and a burro?

Donkey is the correct term for any of the domesticated Asses.  Horses, Donkeys and zebras are all of the family Equus.

Burro is a coloquial term for the Spanish or feral type of donkey (wild burros).  The term is used almost exclusively in the West.  The term is correct only when applied to the mid-sized types of donkeys, and more correctly only those who are wild in descent. (They are STILL domestic animals - feral means domesticated that has gone back to a wild state - not an indigenous wild species!)

The term burro is NOT correct in use with Miniature Mediterranean Donkeys (under 36") or in Mammoth Asses (over 56").

A donkey near us had twins.  Our vet says he's never heard of such a thing!  Are twins common in donkeys?

Yes.  Twins are ten (10) times more common in donkeys than in horses.  Fewer than one  in 1000 sets of twins in horses are estimated to be born healthy and alive, in donkeys, one in 100 sets will survive.  Twin are far more common in the longeared equines and we hear of at least 10 sets being born and surviving every year.  Most of these are standard and Mammoths, but there have been recorded twins in Miniature donkeys as well. In April and May 2001 we have just had reports of two set of Miniature twins.  The first set both were born alive, but one died at five days.  The second set are fraternal twins (both jacks but different in color and markings) and are both still alive at two weeks. (born 4-27-01)  Although some twins appear to be identical, many of the twin cases are graternal (of different colors, or male/female pairs).  In 2013 we have already heard of three sets of twins.

Mares carrying mule foals may also have twins, and the likelihood of twins surviving is higher than a mare carrying only horse foals.

There are also five recorded cases of horse mares who have given birth to one horse foal and one mule foal at the same time.  The mare was bred to one stallion, thought not to be in foal, and bred to the other.  Suprize!  She took both times and  rather unusual phenomenon occurred! 

Unlike in cattle, female twins carried with a male twin are not sterile.  This is called the freemartin syndrome, and is common in cattle where the heifer is sterile due to an overload of male hormones from the bull twin.  It is not the case in equines, and many twin mares have gone on to have foals of their own - sometimes twins, sometimes not.

In 2007, we know of a number of sets of twins born this year - roughly half have had one set stillborn or die very shortly after birth, the other half both survived.  In one set of Standard twins, one was spotted, the other solid-colored. 

*How long does a donkey carry a foal?

Horses carry for 11 months, donkeys for 12.  A mare carrying a mule foal is usually about 11 1/2 months.  However, there are many, many factors that affect the length of a pregnancy. The age of the mare or jennet, previous foaling history/number of foals, sex of the foal, weather, region, infection may all play a part.  Some will go 3 weeks less than the norm, a few have even gone early 14 months!  (one recorded case of 405 days!!!) (Studies also show that mares grazing on fescue may delay birthing for as many as 30-40 days. Fescue can cause toxic reactions in equines.)

A premature foal, one that is actually born early, will need intensive care.  Any foal that is healthy at birth is probably full term no matter how long it was carried. BUT...if your jennet has gone past the projected due date, is listless, or losing weight, have your vet check her to make sure the foal is still alive.  Carrying a stillborn can result in infection, loss of future fertility, and possible loss of the jennet.  Always be safe rather than sorry!

What is a baby donkey called?

Any baby equine (horse, donkey, mule or zebra) is called a foal.  Male foals are colts (or Jack foals in the case of donkeys), females are fillies (or jennet foals).  They are grouped as "Foals" up until they are weaned, usually about 6-8 months old, then they are Weanlings.  After their firstbirthday, they are Yearlings.  They may still be called Colts or Fillies up until they are mature, usually at 3-4 years of age.  Breeding males are stallions (horse or zebra) or jacks (donkeys or wild asses).  Females are mares (horses, zebras, mules) or jennets/jennies (donkeys or wild asses).  Male mules should NEVER be left intact, so stallion mule or jack mule should never be used.  Male mules should be gelded before age 2 and are called Horse mules, geldings, or sometimes "johns".  (Mare mules may locally be called "molly mules".)

go HERE For more on BREEDING,

What colors do donkeys come in? How do I get a spotted donkey?

The most common colors in donkeys are Gray-dun ( Slate Gray), Brown, and black.  There is a variation of red (sorrel), Ivory (blue-eyed white) and a variant of bay.  Some donkeys appear to be nearly white with dark skin - these are Frosted Spotted White. (It's like true gray in horses, the frosted/graying covers up the original color.  It's a color combination, an overlay over the base color and any other patterns.  So a frosted donkey might be brown and white spotted PLUS the frosted overlay, making it look nearly white.)   There is a unique donkey roan, and donkey spotted pattern (closest to overo in pattern and genetic working) which can occur with any base color.  There is a supposed dilution, which lightens the sorrel to a "pink", but there are no recorded buckskin or Palomino donkeys.  The donkey spot pattern may be large frame type patches, or small scattered spots, but there is no appaloosa patterning in donkeys.

We are in the process of adding information and updating the genetics pages.

DO Donkeys wear shoes like horses?  Do they need them?

Generally, no.  Donkeys have a slightly different hoof shape, and their hooves are a little more durable than horses.  However, if your donkey is going to be ridden a lot, work on surfaces (such as rock or pavement) that might cause a lot of wear, or has hoof problems, he or she might need to be shod part of the time.  Barefoot is actually best for the pastured equine, and shoes are only used to correct problems or add support to the foot.  They don't need shoes as a rule if they are not working.

My Farrier is a little unsure about trimming donkey hooves.  Aren't donkeys supposed to be "upright"? 

No not all donkeys have upright hoof angles.  Thes best trim for a donkey hoof is to MATCH THE PASTERN angle, as they would on any horse.  For an animal that has under-run heels or is coon-footed, there may be some corrective trimming in need, but the general rule is to match angles. Trying to "Stand a donkey on it's toes" may do more harm than good.  The basic trim is the same, just the general shape and to a small extent the angles are different - but not that much.  Its not something to fear in trimming!  ADMS has a hoof trimming packet available for $10.00 ppd.  (Expanded in Fall 2007.  Now also available in PDF format.) Please let us know if you want it mailed on a CD to you as  PDF file, mailed as a printed file, or emailed as a set of PDFs.

M donkey has an abcess in the hoof.  The farrier has trimmed it, and I have to soak it and keep the foot protected.  They recommend using a boot like an Easy-boot (TM) but they don't fit donkey hooves.  What can I do?

We too, have had hoof abcess problems.  Even on a Mammoth, the horse boots don't fit.  No chance at all with smaller donkeys or minis (and even some mule hooves, too). 

Make yourself an inner-tube boot.  Get a large inner-tube (not bike-sized).  Cut it twice the length of the measurement from the donkey's knee down the ground.  Place the donkey's hoof in the innertube.  Fold the excess up behind the leg (this will help hold in any liquid as well) and use duct tape around the ankle and cannon.  You can just slit the tape to remove the boot, and tape over fresh.  If the boot gets too worn they are fairly cheap to replace! 

How do we get a show sanctioned by ADMS?

Sorry, but ADMS does not normally sanction any event because we are not involved with them directly.  When an association sanctions and event, the public tends to hold the association responsible for things that go wrong or are not up to par.  We have no control over most events, so do not sanction them.  The Show Committee is actually in charge of holding a show, which rules will be used, location, choosing a judge, classlist preparation, and is responsible for the running of the show in general.

Any time you see problems with a show, or have questions directly regarding a show, or what happened at a specific show, you should address those issues first to the show committee.  ADMS is happy to answer general questions about shows and showing, but is not responsible for activities or specific shows.

What about an ADMS National Show?  Please address any concerns in writing, so that they may be passed along to the Board member in charge of that committee.  The ADMS office staff is unable to answer any questions regarding the future of a National Show.  All inquiries will be forwarded to the special committee.

"I saw this statement on the internet that "More People are killed by donkeys that in airline crashes each year.  Now my spouse doesn't want me to get a donkey!  Is this true? Help!"

NO, this statement has been plagueing us for several years now.  It first appeared somewhere as a "factoid", but it, along with several others on that list, is TOTALLY FALSE. (We now hear that the National Geographic channel is using it in a commercial!)  Until recently, we had absolutely NO IDEA where they got the so -called fact to base this rumor on.  We have now found out that it was spawned due to the numbers of auto accidents caused by loose donkeys in Mexico and the Middle East!   We often hear of people being INJURED by their donkeys, but can't yet name one case where someone in the USA was killed by a donkey-and there have certainly been hundreds of people killed each year in plane crashes.   You'd think that several hundred people killed by donkeys each year would be publicized better somewhere OTHER than a "factoid sheet".  People contact the ADMS for all sorts of reasons, but having searched the archives, we cannot find any notices of members or people killed by a donkey. (
In Nov 2005 we found one headline of a man in Egypt being killed by his donkey - he had beaten the animal and it savaged him.)  In truth more people are bitten by their family dog!  Being killed in an auto collision with a loose donkey is not being killed by a donkey - it's being killed in an auto collision, which happened to involve a donkey.   Help us to dispell this awful rumor-mill factoid - it's not true, it's bunk, treat it as such. Please don't let this statement stop you from getting a donkey or any other animal if you wish to own one!

We're getting a donkey as a pet.  What should we get?

NOT A JACK.  Jacks are not pets.  Get a jennet or gelding, and if you do not really have a lot of prior horse/equine experience, you probably want to start with an older animal, before you go through the joys of learning about donkeys and babies at the same time!!!  Getting a pair of donkeys is fine, but please do not get a mature jack unless you intend to breed donkeys,you have the facilities to keep a jack, and you have the experience to handle one  Some jacks may be fine around kids, but jacks are not pets and children should  ALWAYS be supervised around jacks and any other large animal.

When can my donkey start being used as a livestock guardian, or breaking a steer to lead?  Can a mini be a guard donkey?

Only mature animals should be used in these tasks.  That is, animals at least three (3) years old. A donkey under that age is still a "Teen", still growing, and still developing in mind and body both.  Younger geldings are usually too rough on stock (never use a jack!).  A young animal could also be injured trying to teach a bigger, heavier animal to lead.  Miniatures are not suitable as guard donkeys - against one coyote, they may be fine, but put two large dogs in an attack situation and your small donkey will be the loser.  Standard donkeys, or some large standards, are recommended for guard duty. 

I sent my original papers to the old Denton address.  But the PO hasn't returned them to me as undeliverable, and you don't have them either!!!

Unfortunately, the forwarding order for the PO is only good for six months.  We actually had a 6-month forwarding order, then a 6-month "notify of address change" period.  But after that.... well....  The old office in Denton was in a house.  It was sold, and may have changed hands again.  It is also on a street that is being completely changed from 2-lanes (2 way) to 3 lanes-one-way.  There may not even be a mailbox at that location.  If you send anything to the old Elm Street/Denton address, you should consider it lost.  If the PO left it there, they consider it delivered (return address or not). We moved almost 12 years ago, and posted on the internet and in the magazine about the new address as soon as we had it.   You will need to resubmit copies of anything to the Office (Bonham address) and/or have lost papers reissued.  Sorry, but there is nothing more we can do about this - and we have tried!!! They will NOT let us put up a notice at the other location saying "don't leave stuff for ADMS here!!!" 

Have you seen the "Bad-ass Mule" (one tough mule, mule vs. cougar, mule vs. mountain lion)
photos ? (The cat was already shot, the mule simply acted on the carcass.)

Yes, we have seen the photos and have no doubt they are genuine.  It is this very typical behaviour, inherited from the donkey's natural dislike of dogs, that makes many donkeys good herd/flock guardians.
Please help us by not sending the photos to our inbox (they are rather large!) and we have seen them many times now.  Thanks!

How Do I order the Hoof Packet for myself or my Farrier?

You may order the Donkey Hoof Trim Packet (Donkey hoof packet, how to trim a donkey's hoof) from ADMS by sending a request to (including your name and postal mailing address) and we can send it to you with a billing slip.  Or you may paypal $10 to (again, please include your postal mailing address or let us know if you want this emailed to you as a PDF) and request the Hoof Packet.  We can now also email the PDF files directly to you!

I am looking for a donkey/mule but can't seem to find any in my state.  Where can I find a list of people who have donkeys and mules for sale?

ADMS has a large database of people who are members, who have animals for sale, and may not advertise on the internet.  We create a printed list on demand and mail it to anyone interested in finding donkeys or mules for sale.  We will sort the list for you by type of animal, and by state.  Please send a request to, asking for a Breeder's List.  Please state what type of animal you are looking for (ie miniatures, Mammoths, mules, spotted jacks at stud, etc) and your full postal mailing address.  We will send you your state, and if the list is small, any surrounding ones.  We appreciate a small fee for this service, to cover postage, and may include a billing slip (usually only $1-$3).  A full National list of all breeders who have asked to be included may also be obtained for $6-$10, please call the office for information. 

At what age should I separate the foals out?  When does a jack become fertile?
Jack and jennet foals should be separated at weaning (between 5-7 months old).  Most young jacks can become fertile after age 12 months, but we know of confirmed cases of several 9-month old and one 6 month-old jacks settling jennets.  It has also been noted that a 12 month old jennet, while rare, can become pregnant.  Think teen-age moms.  Jennets should ideally not be bred until over the age of 36 months (3 years).  Yearling jacks should be penned away from females - especially their mothers and sisters. 

What is the walking speed of a donkey/Mule?  How far (how many miles) can a donkey or mule travel in one day?
ADMS worked in 2007 with a historian who was researching how the Roman army could have moved, fed and housed thousands of troops and mules.  The logistics of moving pickets, feeding, watering, grooming and caring for in general took months of correspondence.

Horses, mules, and donkeys (equines) move at a walking pace of about 4-5 miles per hour.  A fast trot can be as much as 9 mlp, a gallop 20 or more.  However, a gallop cannot be sustained all day, the animal would have to alternate with short bursts of speed and then periods of just walking or trotting.

Terrain and weather conditions, as well as the amount of total weight the animal was carrying (whether a person in the saddle or a pack on their back) would all factor in to daily pace.  A lightly loaded animal can move faster and uses less energy (and therefore feed) than a heavily loaded one.  Given that you would probably only travel in daylight hours under normal circumstances, you might average 8-10 mph for 8 hours of travel.  Add  in the factor that the human tailbone isn't designed to site comfortably on the equine back, even with a saddle.  Saddle sores are REAL and they are painful. 

If a person is on foot and leading an animal instead of riding, you then figure travel time based on the human, not on the animal (as the human is the slower-moving in the equation).

What is your mailing address???


ADMS, 3401 Recreation Rd 3, Bonham TX 75418. 

Our phone and fax number is 972-219-0781.    e-mail

(Please do not send packages by any kind of early AM delivery if you are using Fed Ex or UPS.  We ask you to call for the physical address if you must send a package by any means other than regular mail.  We will remind you at that time NOT to use early am delivery - it will not get to us in a timely manner!)

Do not send anything to the old Denton address.  It will be lost, we will not get it. 

How Long until I get my papers back?

Provided they arrived at our Bonham address and all the paperwork is correct, our average turnaround time is 5-6 weeks.  However, at busy times of the year (such as right before the peak of Show season, and in Nov-Dec each year) our volume of incoming mail can double.  With the changes to the registry books in Jan 2009, we are also seeing a great increase in volume from October 2008 and expect to see some for a few months.  In May 201  our turnaround time is10-12 weeks.  While we are working very hard to stay under this timeframe, you can help us greatly by making sure your papers are done correctly and that you keep a copy of what you send.   We do not deposit your check until your papers are mailed to you.  (We don't cash them, so if the check has not cleared the papers are in progress unless they are the odd ones that do not make it here.)

If you must inquire about an animal, PLEASE make certain to let us know 1) when you mailed it, 2) the exact FULL NAME including prefix of the animal being registered and 3) what was to be done - new registration, transfer, update, and if there were other animals in the packet.  Missing any of this information can slow our processing time down greatly while we have to search !   Since as of Nov 19th 2008 we have over 2000 registrations in the office in varying stages of completion, that's a lot of paper (and computer records) to have to sort.  Your help in advance is greatly appreciated.

I'm bummed because I can't register my donkeys - I don't want to microchip them!

YOU MAY still register donkeys!  They do NOT have to have a Microchip.  ANY form of Permanent ID is acceptable.  This can be a lip or ear tattoo, freeze brand, DNA on file, or a microchip.  ADMS will not dictate which brand or even the location.  Use whichever form of permanent ID you are comfortable with.  Just inform ADMS on the registration application what form you used, the unique ID (number of the microchip, brand or tattoo) and the location.  If you are doing DNA on file, please inform us which lab it is on file with so we may place the information on the papers!

Perm ID is required on donkeys going in the MDR book.  No ID, no parentage, et, it can still go in our ADJR book. 

How much does it cost to register a jack?  A jennet?  Register and transfer?

Alll of the pertinant info is printed on the pack of the original Applications for registration.  If your seller did not photocopy BOTH the front and the back to give to you, you are missing vital information about registry procedure.  Please refer to both the
RULES pages and the FEES pages here on the website.

How tall is the Tallest Donkey in the World?

IN Feb of 2013,
Romulus, owned by Phil and Cara Barker Yellott of Waxahachie TX, was measured at 17 hands tall.  His case is was confirmed in May 2013 by the official Guinness Book of Records.  This breaks the previous record of 15.3hh. 

What about the smallest?

There is no official smallest donkey, but there are known 25" mature Miniatures, and reports of a mature 24 1/2" tall in Mexico.

Home (Index)

About donkeys

About Mules


Zebra Hybrids

Mule Pix

The BRAYER (membership "Magazine")

Membership Form (Dues)****
(use only if you are mailing in a check)

(Please use with Credit Card Payment)
(external secure link)
Renewing members Short Form
(Please use with Credit Card Payment)

(external Secure Link)

About ADMS

Registration Info
Where Does my Donkey Go?

What are the Reg Books and what determines which book to use?

Miniature Mediterranean Donkey PDF Reg form (give to others for mail-in)

American Miniature/Standard/Mammoth Donkey PDF Reg Form (to give to others for mail-in)

Secure Online form Miniature/MDR Only

Secure ONLINE FORM for all other Longears

PLEASE READ HERE before using online form if you have not used it before.

(* Since we now have online forms, we will no longer assign numbers for show. * )
Registration Rules 1

Registration Rules 2

Registry Checklist

Inspection Form

Transfer Form or   PDF Version

Update Form      or  PDF Version

Stud Report

Breeding Certificate
(on the reg form)

Stud Contract

Sales Contract

Code of Ethics (PDF)

REGISTRY changes 2009

Permanent ID OPTIONS 2010
The ONLINE Registration form is to be used for all ew registrations of donkeys or mules of all sizes. Please do NOT print the online form and mail it in! ***************************

VHOF/Versatility Hall of Fame


FAQ (frequently asked Questions/Trivia)
Includes info on FERTILE MULES, twins, speed of mules/donkeys, etc

Breeding Questions

About Jacks

VHOF (Versitility Hall of Fame)

Lingo (Terminology)

Diseases in Longears


What Can you Do w/Longears?

Clubs and Organizations

Books ( Our "Hee Haw Book Service")

Member Photos

Links (Breeders and Farms)

Measuring Equines

Tail-less Donkeys?

On Gelding (Castration)

Buyers Checklist (BEFORE you purchase!)

SPOTTING PIX (pinto-spotted donkeys)

Dear John Henry (advise from a Mule)


One tough Mule/Bad-ass Mule


FEES for ADMS Services

Microchipping Notice Sheet
(to inform ADMS of added chip #s for your animals)  New 6-6-08

Found a lost or strayed Longear with a Microchip?

Need literature?
Visit  Hee Haw Books


Measuring for Dwarfism in Donkeys

Registered Farm Names

Prefixes MAIN
(Farm names added 8-20/21-08)
Prefix/Name Rules (see Rules)
Mule (donkey x horse)
The "Cross"
Donkeys as Pets
Lori says those 12 months are REALLY LONG!!!!
The information provided on this page and website is (c) by the ADMS.  Permission is granted to copy for educational purposes (ie school papers, 4-H work, general education websites, fairs, expos) provided that the work is sited as provided coutesy of the American Donkey and Mule Society.  (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004. 2005,.2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013
Romulus, the World's Tallest Donkey.